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Bengal Divided 1905 1971A must read for scholars of South Asian StudiesThis is a well researched account describing the making of East Pakistan in 1947 and later Bangladesh in 1971 British colonial rulers tried to divide the Bengal rovince in 1905 but without any success The unfortunate event of creation of East Pakistan in 1947 bifurcating the Indian nation bled us De obotliga optimisternas klubb profusely with several thousands deaths across the borders This book narrates grieves and sorrows in therocess of making of Bangladesh nation A must read for scholars of South Asian studies Nitish Sengupta was an IAS officer who after his retirement joined olitics and became a Member of Parliement He has written a number of books including Land of Two Parliement He has written a number of books including Land of Two A History of Bengal from the Mahabharata to Mujib In Bengal Divided he recounts the history of Bengal of 20th century till birth of Bangladesh History of 20th century Bengal unfailingly makes for a sad reading A eople who has attained great heights of civilizational glory are divided in two Fatal Dive: Solving the World War II Mystery of the USS Grunion peoples based on religion a division that has been effected by the self servingoliticians aided by alien rulers People of two different faith systems who have lived side by side for over thousand years have decided in the space of a few decades that they cannot live as neighbours any longer The result is a mind blowing tragedy the aftershocks of which are still being felt 75 years later Sengupta in this tragedy the aftershocks of which are still being felt 75 years later Sengupta in this 240 Code Name: Silence page book has narrated that history in broad brush strokes The agony of there artition days The famine of 1943 The Great Calcutta Killings of 1946 And the heartless manner in which the land was vivisected by the British bureaucrates by far the strangest most illogical and arbitrarily drawn boundary line in history between two countries The events of the twenty five years leading to the liberation of Bangladesh which in itself is a history shaping event has been however dealt with rather summarily ossibly because of space constraints Sengupta ends the book with a very erceptive observation In the case of Bangladesh while they are very roud of their own language and cultural identity they have to guard against two Margery Meets the Roses powerfululls first an Islamic Wahabi Islamic fundamentalism and jehadi fanaticism and second #the owerful an Indian cultural and social system Naturally they have to strike a balance in the face of these #powerful an Indian cultural and social system Naturally they have to strike a balance in the face of these The NIGHT. Erotischer Roman pulls While they areroud of their Bengali cultural identity they are also roud of their Islamic heritage but would not like to see their Bengali identity being swamped by either of these two Similarly Bengalis in India have to balance their trans national Bengali cultural identity with the very owerful force of Dark Alchemy (Dark Alchemy, pan Indian identity of which they are alsoartners As the second decade of the the millenium rolls into the third the later trends appear to be winning on both sided of the orous border Even though the language has a somewhat bureaucratic stiffness and the book has a feel of high school history textbook Bengal Divided is usefully readable A good rimer on the Die fremde Stadt: Breslau nach 1945 political history of Bengal in the last century Of course all history is someone soint of view Interesting to think that a decision here or there could have seen Kolkata as a capital of an Independent nation The tragic story of the separation of the East Pakistan from West Pakistan is tremendously streamlined by the writer What Jinnah co and army Bhuttoo failed to realize was Bengali Nationalism Had Bengali been declared National Language in the 1948 the economic exploitation of Bengal had been stopped and olitical freedom of Bengal had been ensured Pakistan might not have lost its other artSimilarly the writer has eagerly emphasized on the Independence of the Subcontinent from the British and its division into India and Pakistan Moreover the role and struggle of Bengali Nationalists such as Chittaranjan Das Subhash Chandra Bose HS Suhrawerdy Khwaja Nazimuddin and others for an independent India is splendidly elaborated in the book and how the Muslim vs Hindu card on communal basis was The Dreamer Wakes (The Story of the Stone played in Bengal to separate thisiece of land forever by those who once fought for a un An unbiased no nonsense narrative that ends on a very optimistic note For those unfamiliar with the history of Bengal and its unity even after being divided this book can Rivers Last Longer prove to be very insightful Sengupta sets out to untie what seems like a historicalaradox a eople who rotested a The Eat-Clean Diet Cookbook: Great-Tasting Recipes that Keep You Lean! partition in 1905 ended up gettingermanently Witchcraft for Tomorrow partitioned in only 65 years later As one learns very early it is less of aaradox than one might believe. In 1905 all of Bengal rose in uproar because the British had artitioned the state Yet in 1947 the same eople insisted on a artition alo. Layers of division already ran through Bengali society way before Curzon s notorious mandate Thanks to Sengupta s steady magnifying glass we see the differences between the Muslim and the Hindu between the Bhadralok and the Ye Castle Stinketh: Could You Survive Living in a Castle? peasant and the Dalit we see the suabble as well as the argument around Cornwallis Permanent Settlement and Hunter srejudice against educating the Hindu Sengupta clears the undergrowth to shed light on the zealot in Fazlul Hu and the savant in Chittaranjan Das without ever valourising them A history buff must not this book which is both fastidious as well as decisive India s artition in 1947 basically involved the division of the two rovinces of Bengal and the Punjab as the other Bootie and the Beast provinces went in as a whole to either of the two sister nations Large scale violence erupted in Punjab and minorityopulations were exchanged across the new border Bengal remained calm but tense due to the healing touch rovided by Gandhiji s hysical resence there As a result of this a large number of Muslims stayed on in Indian Bengal and a similar number of Hindus in East Pakistan Cultural social and industrial interactions were subseuently active in Bengal than Punjab If of Hindus in East Pakistan Cultural social and industrial interactions were subseuently active in Bengal than Punjab If look back in history the artition of Bengal occurred first in 1905 and then in 1971 when the region obtained independence from Pakistan after an armed struggle with the help of Indian arms This book covers a The Art of Mary Beth Edelson period of 66 years from 1905 to 1971 that unmade the nation of Bengal on religious lines It follows the events when the twoarts of Bengal stayed united and when they were separated Nitish Sengupta is an academician administrator olitician and writer who of Bengal stayed united and when they were separated Nitish Sengupta is an academician administrator olitician and writer who a member of the Indian Administrative Service IAS from 1957 to 1992 After retirement he headed the International Management Institute in New Delhi and has been director on the boards of several Motivational Perspectives on Chronic Pain private andublic sector companies He was elected to the Lok Sabha in 1999 and served on several committees of Parliament He has authored many books and is currently based in DelhiThe turn of fortunes for the religious communities of Bengal in the nineteenth century was dramatic Till 1871 when the first ever census was conducted in India everyone thought that Bengal was a Hindu majority rovince The census report came as a surprise to all to learn that the Muslim community enjoyed a numerical supremacy among the eople Conversion to Islam had begun in Bengal in the twelfth century itself and had continued in full swing for another three centuries Sengupta notes with secularist relish that the lower castes changed their religion to get out of the concentration camp type existence in Hindu society He accuses the orthodox Hindus of not admitting women forcibly abducted by Muslims back to the fold as one of the reasons for the drop in numbers If this is true the None Like Him: 10 Ways God Is Different from Us (and Why That's a Good Thing) perpetual fear and threat under which the Hindu community stayed under Muslim rule is terrifying The Muslims wanted to have greater control of the administrative machinery as a corollary to their superiority in numberThisresented another Puta problem After the British had defeated the sultans and usurpedower the Muslims withdrew into a cocoon and harboured separatist visions of a free Muslim state With the loss of 伝説の勇者の伝説 5 出来心の後始末 political economic social and educationalrominence they had begun wholesale downgrading of the emerging society They were averse to English which rose to occupy the Killer Games position which Persian had adorned as the state language The Bengali Hindus uickly stepped in to exploit the available opportunities to the full and replace Muslims in the revenue taxationolice judiciary and army departments which were till then monopolized by them Bengal was artitioned in 1905 between Hindu and Muslim majority areas which was strangely opposed by the nationalists but supported by Muslims It annulment in response to vociferous rotests alienated the Muslims in East Bengal It was only natural then to extend rivileges to Muslims in the re integrated Bengal Irrational opposition emerged from the Hindus as well who even opposed rovision of financial assistance to the newly constituted Dhaka University Chittaranjan Das was a respected leader whose admirers were in both communities He introduced the Bengal Pact in 1923 under which 55 Cocksure per cent of the jobs were reserved for Muslims Congress vehemently rejected it and after Das death in 1925 it was no longer an item in theolitical agenda We get a feeling that Beyond the Cliffs of Kerry (Bold Women of the 18th Century, perhaps if theartition of Bengal in 1905 was allowed to stand Hindus and Muslims would have been happy in their respective Porto Bello Gold pr. Ng communal lines Why did this happen Nitish Senguptaeels of the layers of events in this ivotal eriod in Bengal's history casting new. Ovinces and the fateful artition of 1947 could ve been avoidedThe author notes that the unmaking of the nation began in the eriod 1927 37 Muslim mass organizations like the Krishak Praja Party KPP earned the support of workers and easants while the bhadralok was marginalized further and further When election to the Kaki vojaki: roman v rimah in slikah provincial assembly was carried out according to therovisions of the Government of India Act 1935 the Congress refused to ally with the KPP to form a government Sengupta suggests that this decision was taken by Gandhiji himself under the selfish influence of the well known industrialist G Sengupta suggests that this decision was taken by Gandhiji himself under the selfish influence of the well known industrialist G Birla He reproduces a letter written by Subhas Chandra Bose rebuking Gandhi for this irrational decision The reason for Birla s aversion to KPP was their orientation to the workers against the class interests of the zamindars and large businessmenThis book rovides ample roof to denote the Congress arty as a Hindu outfit rior to independence after which they donned the mantle of secularism Its early leaders like Tilak organized Ganapati and Shivaji festivals on behalf of the arty The Pirpur Committee 1938 commissioned by the Muslim League to study the atrocities against Muslims in Congress ruled states reported that the Congress insisted on singing Vande Mataram which they alleged to be an anti Islamic and idolatrous song It also accused the Congress of withholding licenses for cow slaughter in rovinces which they ruled Doing Bear Boy politics was a tiresome occupation in those days as theoliticians were always on tenterhooks to ensure that their every action was to Black Women in White America promote cordiality and amity between the two communities which fought against each other at the slightestretext Reading these lines we might wonder that Worlds Beyond The Poles partition of the country on religious lines ensured some benefit on this front However the Fazlul Ha Shyama Prasad Mukherjee coalition government in 1941 43rovided a great example of accommodation between the two communitiesEven though Bengal excelled other Indian rovinces in literary and social reforms the Bengali society was riddled with communalism of the worst kind The atmosphere was always explosive waiting for the slightest spark The author mentions that between the five years from 1922 to 1927 a total of 112 communal riots occurred in which 450 eople were killed and about 5000 were injured Hindu rocessions which layed music near mosues automatically triggered riots while the Monster der Woche public slaughter of cows engendered retaliatory strikes Sometimes the hatred surpassed all rational barriers such as the Muslim opposition to the word shri and the symbol of the lotus in Calcutta University s motif Riots in Dhaka saw hundreds killed and tens of thousands fleeing to West Bengal The Direct Action Day August 1946 and Noakhali Riots October 1946 were the two large scale riots before independenceThe book is uite interesting to read only in Part 1 which covers till 1947 and the remainingart is included only as an afterthought as to cover the history of the Bengali nation in full The narration is left open in the Fragen Und Wege Zur Rechtseinheit in Deutschland present age A majoroint reiterated by the author is that the destiny of Bengal was not decided by its own leaders At the end of the freedom struggle the artition of the rovince was finalized by a committee which didn t include a single Bengali leader both on the Hindu and Muslim sides Subhas Chandra Bose was its tallest leader after the death of C R Das but he fell foul with Gandhiji over finer Ones and Zeroes points of the way forward in the struggle His exit left the way clear for Nehru and his cronies to make a mess of free India Another factor to note is the sadredicament of the Dalit leadership during artition Arraigning fellow Hindus for the discrimination they suffered Dalits established alliance with the Muslim leaders and followed them to East Pakistan Jogender Nath Mandal became the first law minister of Pakistan However his disillusionment after just two years at the sad Plight Of Dalits And Hindus of Dalits and Hindus general was athetic He ran back for his life to India and sought asylum This book reproduces the letter of resignation written by him to Pakistan s Kluge president Today s Dalit leaders should read this at least once In the letter Mandal voices concern about the status of Dhimmis assigned to Hindus aser Islamic law It negates all civic rights to minorities as citizens of the nation but offers basic Hugh Hefner's Playboy, 6 Volumes (Collectors) protection to life uponayment of a taxThe book is very attention grabbing and the narration is uncluttered It includes a good bibliography and a commendable indexThe book is highly recommended. Light on the roles of figures such as Chittaranjan Das Subhas Chandra Bose Nazrul Islam Fazlul Ha HS Suhrawardy and Shyama Prasad mukherj. ,