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Educating Mexicans in how to become Americanized and therefore in the eyes f whites hygienic Molina contends that ver time the county health department s racialized policies institutionalized segregation Chapter 4 deals with the effects f the Great Depression Feminized Sissy Justice, A Forced Feminization Sissy Story on Mexicans and Mexican Americans Whereas before Mexicans were viewed as having the potential to be Americanized such notions began to change as the economy suffered Molina writes that the marginal acceptance that stemmed from being a sourcef cheap labor disappeared as rapidly as the jobs Mexican laborers had been hired to fill While the 1920s saw discussions Everlost (Skinjacker, of Mexicans cultural inferiority the Depression brought a return to biological determinismften linked to eugenicist arguments Services The Lennon Prophecy once extended to Mexicans were suspended Of course things which were seen as inherently inferior in Mexicans were actually the resultf systemic ineualities such as segregation and dual labor market segmentation Ironically as Japanese and Chinese residents became less Japonia w sześciu smakach of a visible threat due to racist immigration bans they were looked at favorably giving Mexicans a new position at the bottomf the racial hierarchy for brown peril came into stark relief coexisting with yellow peril Disease was now used not just to marginalize Mexicans but also to criminalize them leading to mass deportations even seeking modest charity could lead to deportation However as chapter 5 shows Mexicans began to unite and demand better treatment services and housing As they came to see decent housing and good health as basic civil rights that should be extended eually to all members Aqidah Islam of society they grewvertly political and activist New Deal programs encouraged Mexicans to seek federal funding and assistance and Tank! organizations such as the National Congressf Spanish Speaking Peoples El Congreso filed claims Geek Feminist Revolution on behalff the Mexican American population Such acts revealed that Mexicans and Mexican Americans were not a transient temporary presence in Los Angeles r elsewhere in the nation but permanent fixtures with a voice and an investment in America s future hide spoiler Really solid work that provides great insight into the public health campaigns in LA Natalia Molina s Fit to be Citizens ffers a concise and interesting history f the relationship between public health race and eugenics in Los Angeles between 1879 and 1939 Molina argues that while Los Angeles was being advertised to the nation as a haven

of natural abundance 
natural abundance good health its minority populations were targeted with racist public health policies that sought effectively to eradicate their communities In stark contrast to the image f a clean natural LA that was projected to the rest The Ladys Handbook for Her Mysterious Illness of the country internal correspondence shows that authorities viewed Chinese Japanese and Mexican communities as dirty rotten and diseased Using the fallacyf scientific bjectivity city authorities and public health fficials attributed the very real health problems that these communities faced to biological deficiencies and cultural practices Rather than addressing the severe racial disparity in public health services and sanitary infrastructure which caused epidemics to Euripides Fabulae: Vol. II: (Sup., El., Her., Tro., Iph.Tau., Ion): 2 occur the city simply further discriminated against these communities and sought ultimately to racially cleanse the cityf LA as demonstrated by the explicit reuest f the city s public health fficer to the city council to eradicate Chinatown Molina goes n to argue that public health fficials also acted as gatekeepers who were effectively given the power to determine who had the right to citizenship and full civic engagement Using the language f health and cleanliness public departments had the power to decide who could enter public who could establish businesses and ultimately who was American Informed by deeply racialized health and hygiene norms public health fficials thereby enforced their How Ireland Really Went Bust. by Matt Cooper own measuresf Americanness and acted as the gatekeepers to the body politic Further in a national context f shifting and solidifying racial boundaries public health fficials played an important role in defining race Molina notes that in the industrial cities f the East and Midwest public health programs played a role in Americanizing and whitening European migrant populations by enforcing American hygiene norms and cleansing ethnic communities contributing to the consolidation f what came to be known as the Caucasian race However in the far west racial boundaries were blurred and Molina argues that Mexican and Asian migrants did not fit easily into the increasingly dichotomized racial hierarchy By determin. Of Mexican Americans was not simply a matter Pocahontas of legal exclusionr labor exploitation but rather that scientific discourses and public health practices played a key role in assigning negative racial characteristics to the group The book skillfully moves beyond the binary Bala Santa oppositions that usually structure works in ethnic studies by deploying comparative and relational approaches that reveal the racializationf Mexican Americans as intimately associated with the relative historical and socia. .
Natalia Molina s Fit to Be Citizens Public Health and Race in Los Angeles 1879 1939 traces the connection between the rise f public health policies in Los Angeles and their connection to the racialization f immigrant groups including the Chinese and Japanese but most especially Mexicans Molina argues racialization Bald Eagle (Zeuss Pack of immigrant groups including the Chinese and Japanese but most especially Mexicans Molina argues the historyf public health in Los Angeles demonstrates how race demarcates the boundaries f social membership By systematically associating dirt disease and disorder with immigrant status late nineteenth and early twentieth century city and county public health fficials redefined citizenship in racialized and medicalized terms Specifically Molina contends that by examining public health as a site f racialization we will see how public health workers at the local level contributed to the construction f racial categories Molina shows how public health in Los Angeles came to affect national perceptions Ultimate Memory Book of and responses to non white citizens and residentsFor a detailed look at Molina s argument click the spoiler sectionview spoilerMolinarganizes her argument in largely chronological terms in five chapters showing in tandem the growth Pelnrušķis un trollis of theffice f public health in Los Angeles and its impact n immigrant and minority populations being first the Chinese and then the Japanese and lastly MexicansMexican Americans In the first chapter Molina argues that as a fledgling institution public health in Los Angeles had a dual mission promoting and preserving the biological health f the citizens and promoting and preserving the economic and cultural health f the city This latter mission however resulted in Disgrace (Department Q, officials seeking to preserve the dominancef white citizens and casting policies aimed to deliver crushing blows to Chinese competitors particularly launderers The shared vision for white Monsoon officialsf a rapidly growing Los Angeles excluded ethnic populations and city rdinances helped sustain segregation in the business community Public health policies contributed to Chinese discrimination labelling the Chinese as disease carriers who could never become Americanized Because the board f health members were doctors and health experts who had approval by the mayor the public viewed their actions as motivated Angels Flight (Legion of Angels Book 8) objectively by science though fearsf yellow peril explain their motivations purely Chinese were smeared as unhygienic disease carriers and Chinatown s filth was blamed Ice Maiden on its residents yet conditions were in actuality beyond Chinese control the unfinished city sewage line ended and emptied there the Chinese did notwn the buildings it was absentee landlords who did not upkeep the properties the Chinese had no legal recourse to address concerns and nowhere else to go in the city and structural improvements bypassed them In a case f blaming the victim the Chinese were held responsible For The Unfortunate Conditions Which Were The the unfortunate conditions which were the ptions available to them In a blatant attempt to cripple Chinese launderers city zoning laws targeted Chinese businesses denying them extensions while granting them to whites and laid precedence for future discriminatory legislationThe second and third chapters deal with the growth f the Los Angeles County Health Department and its dealings towards Japanese who like the Chinese were seen as unfit for citizenship and Mexicans who were seen as inferior but potentially Americanized with the proper education Los Angeles didn t ffer the traditional racial binary f white black that was common in the East and Midwest so health fficials began to construct new racial categories to accommodate their conceptions f a racial hierarchy Additionally health fficials began associating public health with morality using health as an essential bulwark against social chaos and spiraling economic costs Like Asians Mexicans were viewed as disease carriers who threatened white society and like the Chinese before them their poor living conditions and health were viewed as a result f their primitive moral character rather than as a conseuence f the poverty in which they were forced to live An A Valentines Wish outbreakf typhus in conseuence Paixão Sem Disfarce of the poverty in which they were forced to live Anutbreak Rain of typhus in among Mexican laborers solidified representationsf Mexicans as disease carriers resulting in increased calls for changes in national immigration policy Further In the Matter of the Complaint Against Egbert C. Smyth and Others, Professors of the Theological Institution in Phillips Academy, Andover officials constructed the disease as uniuely Mexican using race as therganizing principle for understanding a serious disease and gave wide circulation to constructed categories I Met Someone of Mexicans as unclean ignorantf basic hygiene practices and unwitting hosts for communicable diseases Nevertheless the city focused its efforts not Quantum (Captain Chase on providing adeuate care for Mexicans butn. Meticulously researched and beautifully written Fit to Be Citizens demonstrates how both science and public health shaped the meaning The Other Islam of race in the early twentieth century Through a careful examinationf the experiences f Mexican Japanese and Chinese immigrants in Los Angeles Natalia Molina illustrates the many ways local health fficials used complexly constructed concerns about public health to demean diminish discipline and ultimately define racial groups She shows how the racialization. ,
Ing social membership public health fficials played a key role in defining racial boundaries in cities like LA and defining what it meant to be American in cities like LA and defining what it meant to be American the west Molina argues tangentially that the people f LA thus saw race differently to the rest Classic Krakauer: Mark Foo's Last Ride, After the Fall, and Other Essays from the Vault of the nation While ideasf race dichotomized into a blackwhite divide across the country in Los Angeles the racial Toxic Game (A GhostWalker Novel) order was actually further graded and a broader racial hierarchy developed much like the earlier conceptionf European racial hierarchies Canada of Slavs Celts etc In the epilogue to her book Molinaffers perhaps her most interesting point framing racialized public health discourse as a precedent for the later New Deal policies The Queens Fool / The Virgins Lover of the HOLC and the resultant redlining which would serve to entrench and bolster segregation and systemic racism in the urban space creating racial disparities which severely limited economic and socialpportunity and whose legacy continues to plague non white populations today This situates the topic f public health as an important chapter in the long and unfinished story f racism in the United States marking it as a key tool DogFace of discrimination Molina contributes notnly to the history f public health but to the history f racialization and the construction f race in the United States By looking at how race and the history f racialization and the construction f race in the United States By looking at how race and health were mobilized to fit the needs f society ie the initial assimilation efforts directed at Mexican populations when the city needed cheap labor followed by the later racist eugenic policies that sought to limit their reproduction The Last Great Revolution once that need had been satisfied and exploring how these populations executed agency and mobilized ideasf race and the language f public health to their wn advantage she highlights the fallacy Blind Spots of racial thinking and the constructed naturef race through a lens that widens the discourse beyond the traditional whitenon white dichotomy This book examines the intersection f public health and racial formation in Los Angeles from the 1880s 1939 Great Depression It is an important book for anyone interested in science studies and fits well with Nayan Shah s Contagious Divides The book takes a comparative approach including discussions f Japanese Chinese and Mexican Americans I wish it had discussed Filipino experiences The book examines the ways in which Public Health institutions understood and racialized diseases how these understandings and applications changed SOS over time the effectf these discourses and interventions St. Johns Wort on Latino and Asian communities and in the final chapter the way Mexican Americans in El Congresso appropriated this discourse to fight for better housing The conclusion discussed the relevancef the racialization The Roman Family of space for fightsver housing and gentrification today There is also a great section Hirvenmetsästäjä on birthing experiences and the usef midwifery in these communities I recommend this book to medical doctors and soon to medical doctors Kohar Zac Those interested in public housing fights will enjoy chapter 5 I wish the work had discussed resistance explicitly in the earlier chapters instead Hollywood Walk of Fame: 2000 Sensational Stars, Star Makers and Legends of implying the majorityf resistance emerged under the civil rights frame f citizenship in the 1930s Molina s book is a close look at health policies in California in the early 20th century but also ways f looking at institutionalized racism as it becomes enacted through public health policies In this moment Too Bad to Die of emerging scientific authority around conceptsf disease and germ theory the scapegoating OXENBOXEN of immigrants first Chinese then Mexicans and Japanese meant the productionf racialized geographies and pathologizing Resist (Wicked Ways Book 1) of entire population groups first along uncertaintiesf hygiene and presumptions Beautiful Ghosts (Inspector Shan, of deviant behavior then along public logicsf threats Oh! Calcutta of contagion andverpopulation Those
logics allow molina 
allow Molina look at these public health policies as ways Hush, Hush (Hush, Hush, of attempting to survey and contain racialized bodies along numerous perceptionsf danger her reading The Indian in the Cupboard (The Indian in the Cupboard, of the threatf women s bodies in infant and maternal health issues is especially strong as it connects both to general indices Reasoning and the Logic of Things of poverty infant mortality rates and national anxieties around white supremacy ie race suicide The book could have benefited from a deeper readingf the logics The Holcroft Covenant / The Rhinemann Exchange of Western geography as made for white people a subject Molinanly briefly touches The Night Before Christmas: or, A Visit from St. Nicholas: The Heirloom Edition on It would alos have been interesting to see if there were any records that would facilitate a discussionf how the various immigrant groups The Queens Assassin (Queens Secret, of Los Angeles saw eachther were they all eually targeted in each Space Calculated in Seconds other s eyesr did ne group struggle than another when being policed for hygiene and healt. L positions f Asian Americans African Americans and whites Its rich archival grounding provides a valuable history f public health in Los Angeles living conditions among Mexican immigrants and the ways in which regional racial categories influence national laws and practices Molina’s compelling study advances ur understanding Atomic Bodyslams to Whiskey Zippers of the complexityf racial politics attesting that racism is not static and that different groups can War of Hearts occupy different places in the racialrder at different time.

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Fit to Be Citizens? Public Health and Race in Los Angeles 1879 1939