(E–pub READ) [The Road to Serfdom]

Finally got around to reading this libertarianconservative classic It s short but deep combining economics politics sociology and a short history of Socialist thought to create the greatest critiue of the collectivist impulse that ou can read Hayek s message is blunt despite the freedom and liberality that is western man s birthright there is an inevitable clamor for order and euality that arises from the intellligensia and the wealthy This clamor leads to the demand often in the guise of a new freedom for stronger government regulation and guidance of economic activity But the increase of government activity in the private sphere makes people so dependent on government largesse that the recipients are reduced to a modern form of serfdom forever tied to the government that can determine whether they eat or starve Hayek was writing during WW2 so much of his critiue centers on the National Socialism of the Germans but he makes clear that the Marxists and Laborites were just as bad Hayek s analysis of German thought is especially interesting inasmuch as he traces a tendency towards planning and collectivization in Germany going back decades Rather than the modern cartoon villian portrait of Hitler that we now know Hayek portrays that Nazis as simply finishing an effort to nationalize the German economy that began in Bismark s time and was the overarching goal of that nation s political scientific and capitalist elite Hayek s arguments are often subtle and academic but he pulls no punches and is eminently uotable a must read for anyone who cares about politics and its intersection with economics Introduced by Chicago don Milty Friedman who assures us that the free market is the only mechanism that has ever been discovered for achieving participatory democracy xi Preach it Brother Milt So called collectivism had been burying purported individualism apparently in Padre Fred s 1944 analysis but was unexpectedly checked by the time of Frere Milt s semicentennial celebratory gala binge Fra Milt is pleased to report that Father Fred was dead wrong in his predictions that collectivist statism was taking over the UK mostly because central planning was sacrificed rather than individual liberty xiii ie parliamentary procedure kept the sky from falling but also because collectivism is mired in bureaucratic confusion and inefficiency id That latter clich is not rigorously evidenced but is taken as a postulate of market fundy triumphalism Confusion is of course cipher for public due process and inefficiency the normal code for unions plus intentionally non profit Gubmint nevertheless grew and tried to regulate bidness usually at the behest of special interest groups xiii the cryptograph for not rich people Despite Hayek being 100% wrong about statist takeover Brother Milty confirms that Hayek s central insight is correct coordination of men s activities through central direction and through voluntary cooperation are roads going in very different directions the first to serfdom the second to freedom xiii xiv because medieval economics is characterized precisely by state planning and public ownership of the means of production Also NB coordination of activity centrally through a large corporation is presumably perfectly acceptable Fra Milt concludes with charm The bulk of the intellectual community almost automatically favors any expansion of governmental power so long as it is advertised as way to protect individuals from big bad corporations relieve poverty protect the environment or promote euality xv xvi NB the same topos found in objectivism which traffics in similar rhetorics of mendacity Milt objects to the expansion of state power when the object is to protect individuals when they are to be protected from corporations manifestly not an individualist positionThis text is ripe for a derridean reading from the Outwork the preface to end all prefaces Dissemination considering the guest intro here the 1976 1956 1944 prefaces and author s introduction proper all preceding the text itself It s a parade of horribles 1976 preface concedes in a moment of rare candor I was myself uncomfortable about the possibility that in going beyond technical economics I might have exceeded my competence xxi Well uite Notes an euivocation At the time I wrote 1944 socialism meant unambiguously the nationalization of the means of production and the central economic planning which this made possible and necessary xxiii however socialism has come to mean chiefly the extensive redistribution of incomes through taxation and the institutions of the welfare state id 1976 backs away from the thesis that any movement in the direction of socialism is bound to lead to totalitarianism xxiv A concession that there is no necessary connection between socialism and totalitarianism no matter what Papa Freds thinks they mean on a given day If anyone thought that Freds meant that any step toward socialism leads to totalitarianism however we might excuse their apparently erroneous belief on the basis of the 1956 preface wherein Big Poppa admits that his audience is already against fascism and communism which he identifies as substantially identical in a standard reckless construction and that democratic socialism is a very precarious and unstable affair xxxii revealing the true polemical target and associating by the bye New Deal policies with totalitarianism by implication even though hot socialism is probably a thing of the past id Notorious lets us know his ideological roots pretty plainly in 1956 But in Britain as elsewhere in the world the defeat of the onslaught of systematic socialism has merely given those who are anxious to preserve freedom a breathing space xliv 1944 preface affirms that his argument is derived from certain ultimate values xlv Preface does not disclose them but his lebensraum reference in 1956

"clears it up "
it up meAuthor s own original introduction opens with epigraph from Lord Acton rightwing fan favorite that Few discoveries are irritating than those which expose the pedigree of ideas 3 With that kind of arrogance the reasonable reader can assume that the text will lay out the intellectual pedigree of socialist doctrine As it happens the text examines almost no socialist doctrine of any flavor whatsoever It does eventually get around to laying out a thesis regarding the socialist roots of Nazism 183 198 which links Marxism to Hitler through figures such as Sombart Plenge and others it s the strongest part of the text as it is at least specific but my five ear old daughter could do better The entire section relies upon euivocations Pops is not content with his original definition of socialism as we have seenThe book s purpose Few are ready to recognize that the rise of fascism and Nazism was not a reaction against the socialist trends of the preceding period but a necessary outcome of those tendencies 6 So the causal relation is allegedly socialism fascism If the Acton epigraph is aimed at democratic socialistssocial democrats as per the 1956 preface then this causal relation is not much concern even if it is assumed arguendo to be true That is it s not at all irritating anyone with the pedigree of socialism to point out that fascism is its alleged evil offspring It doesn t make any sense unless Bigg Poppa is expecting us to accept a non distributio medii or affirmed conseuent fallacy Later pedigree for coercion and lack of freedom of thought is located in the French writers who laid the foundations of modern socialism 28 without reference to any particular writer or text except Saint Simon who is uoted slightly as wanting to treat disobedient persons as cattle which is not exactly an idea that arises exclusively or even in socialism cf Ottoman governance theoryEntire volume relies on an euivocation fallacy broadly maligning socialism no matter how that term is defined as hinted by the 1976 preface The conflict between Nazis and commies is the kind of conflict that will always arise between rival socialist factions 11 Doggfather is not interested et in substantiating this puerile euivalence but rather prefers to point out that German socialists have found much support in their country from certain features of the Prussian tradition and this kinship between Prussianism and socialism in which in Germany both sides gloried gives additional support to our main contention 11 Noted socialism shares a continuity with prussianism which must be a reference to Bismarck or whatever else in the deep history of Germania that the Doggfather wishes us to infer with neoliberal psychic powerzBegins the argument proper with the contention that we are unwilling to consider the crisis as the result of a genuine error on our part and that the pursuit of some of our most cherished ideals has apparently produced results utterly different from those which we expected 14 We should therefore not forget that this conflict has grown out of a struggle of ideas within what not so long ago was a common European civilization and that the tendencies which have culminated in the creation of the totalitarian systems were not confined to the countries which have succumbed to them id This is a curious admission for Atomic Dogg to make The current crisis WW2 surely but perhaps is the result of most cherished ideals and grew out of the common civilization of which prussianism seems to have been a part No problem It s not like extraterrestrials started the war or zombies took over objectivism s position on zombies socialism notwithstanding If all that is true then why dogmatically state that everyone is unaware of not merely the magnitude of the changes which have taken place during the last generation but the fact that they mean a complete change in the direction of the evolution of our ideas and social order 15 16 I suppose our ideas are not the same as our most cherished ideals then Apparently all of the evil altruists sorry hard not conflate this with Ayn Rand have progressively abandoned that freedom in economic affairs without which personal and political freedom has never existed 16 This last point is dogmatically stated throughout the text and never evidenced with any rigor Never mind the fact that it all grew out of civilization or progressively developed we are solemnly informed of How sharp a break not only with the recent past but with the whole evolution of Western civilization the modern trend toward socialism 16 which is something that must be measured by reference to the longer historical perspective back to the Bible and the bloody Romans which are held up as exemplars of individualism along side Montaigne Erasmus Pericles and Thukydides Heh Signaler un problème yeah So never mind thatou just said right before this that the crisis grew out of European civilization progressively developed is rooted in prussianism now it s some sort of epistemic break from the entire tradition of the West As an aside is anyone actually persuaded by argumentum ad antiuitatem Confirmed thereafter in his concern to show how completely though gradually and by almost imperceptible steps our attitude toward society has changed 24 NB the steps aren t shown Mmkay Revise and resubmit when Un monstre dans les céréales you getour story straight P FunkNot only is Stalinism worse than fascism 31 but marxism led to fascism 32 fascism is the stage reached after communism fails id and all the fascist leaders began as socialists id Fascists and communists are the same compete with each other for the same personnel and hate each other as heretics 34 Socialism transitioned to fascism so easily because they are so closely related 35 And so on It s a mess and it s thoroughly mendacious That last point for instance is simply manifestly erroneous at which point did a state with socialism as Big Poppa defined it in 1944 state ownership of the means of production with central planning 37 a mere 3 pages later exist and then transition to fascism The answer was never in 1944 and remains transition to fascism The answer was never in 1944 and remains now The errors are so coarse the confusions so gross that it can only be intentional misrepresentation as no one is this stupid Cites de Tocueville for the proposition that democracy and socialism have only euality in common while democracy seeks euality in liberty socialism seeks euality in restraint and servitude 29 which is offered as self evident fact without any substantiation whatsoever Eventually throws this proposition under the bus however as democracy is not very interesting to Thug Life except as a truncheon to beat leftists We see this not only in the prefatory remarks regarding social democrats but also in the inane expansion of the target from socialism to collectivism which includes liberals as understood in the US 39 Collectivism is defined childishly as marked by central planning 39 which planning is to be opposed because inefficiency 41 but also because it is impossible to assume control over all the productive resources without also deciding for whom and by whom they are to be used 46 Gang Starr heads all the way down this slippery slope with And whoever has sole control of the means must also determine which ends are to be served 101 Both of these objections are unevidenced by Doggfather principally because they are completely false but even were they true Pops is too indolent to think through the details of the argument preferring to sweep grandly and generally all manner of facts and whatnot under the newly whitewashed rugIndividualism is this recognition of the individual as the ultimate judge of his ends the belief that as far as possible his own views ought to govern his actions 66 Individuals should be allowed within defined limits to follow their own values and preferences rather than someone else s that within these spheres the individual s system of ends should be supreme and not subject to any dictation by others id This is a uaint kindergarten notion a solipsism that is thoroughly depoliticized ahistorical a fantasia Any market participant should know that an individual is unable to dictate terms to the market for as ou just fucking said the market enables entrepreneurs to adjust their activities to their fellows the price system will fulfill this function only if competition prevails that is if the individual producer has to adapt himself to price changes and cannot control them 56 emphasis added The economic participant is always already governed by the external Big Poppa is not interested in this implosion of course but it dicks up the primary basis for his preference for private property He shrugs away the obvious objection in canards such as how in the market system no person s view about what is right and desirable overrules that of others 113 ORLYTotal obfuscation in comments such as German anti Semitism and anti capitalism spring from the same root 154 which is as apodictically false as can be We also see that no clich is left undefecated in a movement like that of National Socialism or communism can probably be compared only to those of the great religious movements 164Our antenna should alert on unevidenced proclamations that those with authority for an economic plan will inevitably impose their scale of preferences on the community for which they plan 73 It is outrageous in its hubris in its cynicism but also in its hypocrisy for which capitalist allows notice comment on corporate policy Delegation of economic authority to a public planning board will result in arbitrary decisions 74 leading to the completely candid confession that Democracy is essentially a means a utilitarian device for safeguarding internal peace and individual freedom and is by no means infallible or certain for there has often been much cultural and spiritual freedom under an autocratic rule than under some democracies 78 And out with it A true dictatorship of the proletariat even if democrati. A classic work in political philosophy intellectual and cultural history and economics The Road to Serfdom has inspired and infuriated politicians scholars and general readers for half a century Originally published in England in the spring of 1944 when Eleanor Roosevelt supported the efforts of Stalin and Albert Einstein subscribed lock stock and barrel to the socialist program The Road to Serfdom was seen as heretical for its passionate warning against the dangers of state control over the means of production For F A Hayek the collectivist idea of empowering government with increasing economic control would inevitably lead not to a utopia but to the horrors of nazi Germany and fascist ItalyFirst published by the University of Chicago Press on September 18 1944 The Road to Serfdom garnered immediate attention from the public politicians and scholars alike The first printing of 2000 copies was exhausted instantly and within six months than 30000 were sold In April of 1945 Reader's Digest published a condensed version of the book and soon thereafter the Book. .
The Road to Serfdom

read The Road to Serfdom

فلسفه از آغاز تاریخ Conflits dans la famille : Manuel pour sortir des querelles
C in form if it undertook centrally to direct the economic system would probably destroy personal freedom as completely as any autocracy 78 79 This contempt for democratic polity is revealed in Bigg Poppa s legal illiteracy like Rand he has no law and accordingly errs in his discussions of it such as when he suggests that the rule of law stripped of all technicalities means that government in all its actions is bound by rules fixed and announced beforehand rules which make it possible to foresee with fair certainty how the authority will use its coercive powers 80 emphasis added Any reference to technicalities regarding the law should disualify the utterance and probably the utterer because law is technicality His notion that everything should be known beforehand is also manifestly erroneous plenty in law applies retroactivelyReader can thus only laugh when Biggy Freds suggests that central planners will not want to be fettered by democratic procedure 97 Didn t ou just tell us that democratic procedure doesn t matter and what matters is private property Ultimately the individualist position here as found in Rand s objectivism is profoundly illiberal retaining only a preference for markets and private property both Rand and Pops will not be completely committed to markets of course and will allow differing degrees of monopolization This makes the argument here structurally identical to fascism and therein lies the principal stupidity of Pops argument he had defined socialism as central planning over state ownership of the means of production Fascism however never got to either prong of that definition Fascism did have anti liberal components regarding liberalism as too much too soon fascism attempts to arrest history to turn back the clock Whereas the fascists would undo liberalism s egalitarianism while retaining property and markets the socialist proper position is that liberalism is not enough too late This set of basic distinctions is manifest in the most basic writings on the subject cf Paxton s Anatomy of Fascism Griffin s Modernism and Fascism Lemkin s Axis Rule in Occupied Europe Neumann s Behemoth Pops doesn t care about any of that Pops only cares about propertyIt s a sad commentary on the world that this one of the worst books ever written is also considered one of the most important It s actually embarrassingly bad especially in its most famous bits such as the dogmatic assertion that the price system under competition is an apparatus of registration which automatically records all the relevant effects of individual actions and whose indications are at the same time the resultant of and the guide for all the individual decisions 55 this argument simply removes the mystery one step and then is without declared efficient and just This automatic coordination is graceful whereas central planning is incredibly clumsy primitive and limited in scope id nevermind that the alleged efficiency in the market mechanism is based precisely on pricing participants out of the market which may not matter for irrational luxury goods but when it results in market starvation or market famines as in Victorian India or Ireland or during the general crisis of the 30s that s a bit different Automatic coordination is deprivation and death but because it s papered over with woad warrior FREDUM1 it s the fault of the deprived or the decedent who obviously wasted their freedomI have only commented on the lowest of the low points The lowest point probably is the crude suggestion that one of the surprising features of the political emigration from Germany is the comparatively small number of refugees from the Left who are not Jews in the German sense 203 This is deception beyond measure as the German left had been destroyed just after WWI and then again by the NSDAP in the 30s the suggestion here is accordingly outrageous and the suggester scum of the earth considering that the surviving leftists in germania during WWII were sweating it out in concentration camps or acting as part of the armed resistance So fuck Painting Landscapes from Your Imagination you Pops and fuck Brother Milt and fuck Ayn Rand just becauseRecommended for readers who experience the horror inspired by the idea of everything being directed from a single center persons who claim as a virtue that under one system we shall know less and those who believe that it is not difficult to deprive the great majority of independent thought There is an old cartoon found here which summarizes the logic of this work rather perfectly Essentially the government gets involved inour life they dictate how Lippenbekenntnisse you live then they killou The notions in this text are trifling at bestHayek never confronts the fact that a lack of some centralized body somewhere making decisions for ou does not mean an end to governance Clearly businesses govern They also plan To take this power away from a centralized and at least ostensibly publicly accountable body and to diffuse this power throughout the business community is not to rid oneself of governance It simply means that businesses are the governmentIf we are to acknowledge the uite obvious tendency for capital to move toward those with the most capital that is for businesses to develop into monopolies and oligopolies then one might see that Hayek s model accomplishes nothing less than the restoration of the same feudal structures he s supposedly warning againstHis argument if taken to the same disparate conclusions as the one s he takes communism and socialism to would result in the ownership of all land by a handful of oligarchs We would then tend their land for a pittance We would be serfs The historical analysis upon which this book depends amounts to nothing than extremely poor scholarship masuerading as thoughtful contrarianism Hayek s conflation of Nazism with Socialism merely extremely poor scholarship masuerading as thoughtful contrarianism Hayek s conflation of Nazism with Socialism merely they have similar names in German is an example of stupidity on the level of mistaking the PATRIOT Act for patriotism or the Ministry of Peace for peacefulness This distracting error is unfortunately the foundation of the entirety of his argument His theory of authoritarianism consists of extrapolations from misplaced assumptions about Nazi Germany and disproven projections about the direction the US Britain are heading in the post war era His uaint economic theory tells us little about con The Road to Serfdom is not an anti government book it s definitely not a libertarian or pro laissez faire capitalism or even a pro democracy book It s purely and simply an anti socialism book And just to be clear to Hayek socialism primarily means central planning It s chapter after chapter of reasons why socialism despite it s apparently noble goals both will not work in the practical sense and how it tends to lead to totalitarianismHayek s arguments are level headed and logical He is careful not to insult his opponent and goes out of his way to point out their good I tried to read this several times beginning back when I almost convinced myself I might be able to understand read respect what Republicans were thinking I m sorry to say that is over at least for now If we can lie cheat and steal our way to power what difference does it make what is justI made some notes before I gave up Putting them here in case I ever get back to this in time to challenge Paul Ryan personallyThis book has gone through so many editions it is worth noting which one is referenced Bruce Caldwell Professor of Economics at Duke University wrote the introduction to this 2007 edition published as ever by the University of Chicago Press It is said current Speaker of the House of Representatives Paul Ryan gives out copies of this book to his staff when they begin working for him The staff must discuss the book in small groups like bible study because I guaran f ing tee ou a Impossible Things young and busy staff in DC will not know what the heck Hayek is talking about much less apply it to the US economy in the context of the worldThe ideas in this book began as a memo to the director of the London School of Economics in the 1930s which then became a magazine article and then during WWII became a monograph of its own When it was published in the United States was it 1944 it became a surprise popular hit though hated by the intelligensiaI skimmed the book only Words like freedom are bandied about with great earnestness freedom from coercion and I can t believe we are still talking about this in 2017 No I am not going to go back and fight these arguments all over again We spent much of the twentieth century watching one insufficiently great man after another tell us they ve got our backs In the end after a lifetime of hard knocks we find that no in fact corporations took care of themselves and cared about us only insofar as we needed enough money to buy their product We discovered that corporations really needed rules and regulations to do the right thing because they defined their responsibility narrowly than we did After all they were responsible to shareholders not customers not citizens who give them space water energy raw materials I m tired of replaying this argument over and over because over and over we discover that corporations don t actually do the right thingchokengtitiktitikchokeng 20 Ifou have any comprehension of my philosophy at all Keto Diet for Beginners: The Keto Diet Cookbook with Quick and Healthy Recipes incl. 30 Days Weight Loss Plan you must know that one thing I stand for above all else is free trade throughout the world p 28 A final criticism has sometimes been called the inevitability thesis or the slippery slope argument Hayek is claimed to have said that once a society engages in a little planning it is doomed to end up in a totalitarian stateAny departure from the practice of free enterprise any joke that reason and science may be applied to the direction of economic activity any attempt at economic planning must lead us remorselessly to serfdom 60 stars On my list of All Time Favorite Books One of the most important books ever written and most concise brilliant scathing and impressive argument against the planned economy that has been or likely ever will be written Hayek while always being respectful to the adherents of the idea that state control over resources and goals is the right approach nevertheless absolutely destroys each and every argument and rationale alluded to by such people His general thesis that socialism communism fascism will inevitably lead to totalitarianism and the loss of freedom for the individual is demonstrated without skipping logical I could be wrong but surely not even the greatest fans of Hayek could believe this is a particularly nuanced book The central thesis is that everyone that disagrees with Hayek is either a totalitarian or someone who is inadvertently leading society down the road towards totalitarianism This doesn t only include Marxists and Fascists who Hayek euates as identical nor even members of the Labour party in Britain who might be considered fellow travellers but even many of theounger members of the Conservative party too You see what I mean about nuance then perhaps Not only is everyone else wrong but any differences between them are as nothing when compared with what binds them in common There literally can be no nuanceDecades later Maggie Thatcher would flung down a copy of Hayek s The Constitution of Liberty during a meeting with members of her party and ell This is what we believe It fits of course Both held that there was no alternative and that any deviation from the one true path inevitably leads to destruction and serfdom Freedom is somewhat oddly defined if there is ultimately only one available choiceThe later preference for forced choices by radical free market types is perhaps one of the most potent current criticisms of this book Worth reading in this context is William Davies The #Limits Of Neoliberalism Particularly In #of Neoliberalism particularly in to Nudge theory As the book Nudge makes clear while it takes free market ideas very seriously it also believes that people might make better decisions if they were nudged towards them This ought to otherwise seem problematic if ou really believed what Hayek says here YOU SEE CENTRAL TO HIS THESIS IS THAT SUCH see central to his thesis is that such understanding of what is best for others isn t possible in fact it is fundamentally impossible The thing that makes capitalism and radical free market capitalism in particular such a fantastic system is the fact that experts are kept away from decision about what might make the lives of others better It is hard to no think that Hayek would view these nudges as little than a further step down the road to serfdomThere are infinitely better criticisms of this book than I m going to provide in this little review Some of those include Never Let a Serious Crisis Go to Waste and Capitalist Realism Why I find this book particularly terrifying is that it really has a distasteful understanding of what freedom means Freedom here is the elimination of every kind of safety net it means dog eat dog it means the war of all against each it means an almost ludicrous extreme of competition because only in this is the purity of individualism able to be assured Any restrictions on individualism is understood as inevitably leading to fascismcommunismsocial democracy all of which are seen as basically identical he literally says as much here Society is understood as a kind of information exchange where money is the chief form of data and therefore money needs to be protected from any distortion say imposed inflation since money or prices rather allow everyone in society to know which choices they should make that will best suit their needs The reason why any form of planning is ineffective and ultimately evil is because the whole system is so insanely complex that any form of centralised planning inevitably introduces inefficiencies to the entire system This makes the whole system worse for everyone but since the planners benefit by keeping their own jobs regardless of the poor outcomes of their plans those inefficiencies compound People then are forced to accept products they do not want and this leads to further distortions in the proper price signals within the system which then further multiplies inefficiencies And because there is no way of seeing what a efficient system would look like outside the plan the plan is still held to be the most efficient organisation of the systemRather than planning a system based on the anarchy of economic activity is the only system capable of meeting the needs of the whole of society and of producing freedom at the same time Since there is no central planner individuals are able to understand the messages contained in the highly situated contexts they live within and from within the prices of good they observe and that means they are able to act in ways that meet their needs from within those circumstances The system is self regulating because competition ultimately leads to a situation where the people who are most efficient and best at meeting the needs of those around them are the only people who will succeed The system also can only exist on increased freedom to the extent that freedom can be euated with economic anarchy since any restriction on this freedom will necessarily be imposed upon it from outside by the dreaded planners who we have already decided will lead us to fascist communist collectivism Any individual may end up crushed under the driving wheel of progress in fact this is inevitable and necessary for risk cannot be mitigated in the system without distorting the system as a whole And since competition is the engine of progress and competition means winners and losers then the economic euivalent of Darwinian natural selection is however regrettable inevitableThus Hayek presents his vision splendid of unfettered free markets His expectation of course is that although some people will inevitably be crushed under foot overall most people. Of the Month Club distributed this condensation to than 600000 readers A perennial best seller the book has sold over a uarter of a million copies in the United States not including the British edition or the nearly twenty translations into such languages as German French Dutch Swedish and Japanese and not to mention the many underground editions produced in Eastern Europe before the fall of the iron curtainAfter thirty two printings in the United States The Road to Serfdom has established itself alongside the works of Alexis de Tocueville John Stuart Mill and George Orwell for its timeless meditation on the relation between individual liberty and government authority This fiftieth anniversary edition with a new introduction by Milton Friedman commemorates the enduring influence of The Road to Serfdom on the ever changing political and social climates of the twentieth century from the rise of socialism after World War II to the Reagan and Thatcher revolutions in the 1980s and the transitions in Eastern Europe from communism to capitalism in the 1990sF A Hayek. Will be better off under this system than under any other system capable of operating There are occasional nods to the benefits of democracy but it isn t at all clear how democracy can be exempt from also being seen as Criminal Juries in the 21st Century: Psychological Science and the Law (American Psychology-Law Society Series) yet another collectivist project that undermines his radical individualism Thatcher s there is no society only individuals rings inour ears while reading this Certainly Hayek imposes stringent limitations upon democracy democracy clearly can t place any limits on the radical free market he proposesPart of me wants to say that after four decades of living in lock step with Hayek s ideal of laissez faire capitalism and the gross ineuality that has produced and the ecological suicide we are gormlessly heading toward that perhaps some of those who elled the loudest that radical free market economics would lead to the promised land should be a little embarrassed now That certainly has not proven to be the case As Capitalist Realism makes all too clear the GFC only proved to his followers that Hayek s ideas were not implemented stringently enough And that is the beauty here Hayek s ideas are so over the top so utopian or dystopian rather that it is impossible for them to ever be fully implemented even in Chile under a dictator and so there will always an escape clause Even after the Thatcher nightmare there was an escape clause that said if only his ideas had been consistently followed I doubt we will move on from these ideas any time soon they form a solid plank of our current received wisdom our axiomatic truths Those who benefit from such ideas are rich beyond imagining and they hold so much power with their wealth that it isn t in the least bit clear to me how an opposition to these views would be possible to be sustained And so we will continue to march proudly over the cliff each in turn proclaiming our freedom even as we begin our descent under the iron clad laws of gravity As someone or other much wiser than me once said it is easier to imagine the end of the world than the end of capitalism I guess therein lies Hayek s greatest legacy He inspired Milton Friedman There s nothing to add to that it s just making one speechlessAs soon as abstract not measurable highly abstract not concrete concepts and words such as freedom justice right etc are used it s often a highly alarming sign signal and warning that something is going terribly wrong that the author has left reality and entered the spheres of speculation guessing or just doing as if subjective in the best cases just eccentric DIY creative problem solving ideas can be implemented in larger systems or even the world It reminds me of playing Chinese whisperers silent post for two reasons First because those pseudo fringe science wannabe intellectuals are as arrogant as possible while behaving like stubborn kids and second because one begins with a stupid idea that gets copied and modified and mutates to and idiotic tragically real life appliances It s also a bit like a brainstorming a creative techniue an idea constructing session completely getting out of control I ll give it a try Let s say that I am biased and hate capitalism such as Hayek hated socialism without any reason mixed it with pseudo psychology and constructed his crude and inhuman theoriesSo I want anything in the property of the state ban private companies install a system such in China or with communism Does one see how stupid and onesided that is this black and white good and bad evil economy and friendly economy But wait if we instead say that our economic system is as onesided and stupid as communism that s of course unacceptable treason One could produce thousands of stupid fringe theories while misusing social sciences and humanities Oh wait that s permanently done my mistake I ve said most about this topic in my reviews of Roslings FactfulnesshttpswwwgoodreadscomreviewshowPinkers Enlightenment Nowhttpswwwgoodreadscomreviewshowand Friedmans Capitalism and Freedom books are just a repetition of the same ada bla without any accuracy or legitimacySome facepalm uotes I am certain however that nothing has done so much to destroy the juridical safeguards of individual freedom as the striving after this mirage of social justice Although we had been warned by some of the greatest political thinkers of the nineteenth century by Tocueville and Lord Acton that socialism means slavery we have steadily moved in the direction of socialism Wir verdanken den Amerikanern eine gro e Bereicherung der Sprache durch den bezeichnenden Ausdruck weasel word So wie das kleine Raubtier das auch wir Wiesel nennen angeblich aus einem Ei allen Inhalt heraussaugen kann ohne da man dies nachher der leeren Schale anmerkt so sind die Wiesel W rter jene die wenn man sie einem Wort hinzuf gt dieses Wort jedes Inhalts und jeder Bedeutung berauben Ich glaube das Wiesel Wort par excellence ist das Wort sozial Was es eigentlich hei t wei niemand Wahr ist nur da eine soziale Marktwirtschaft keine Marktwirtschaft ein sozialer Rechtsstaat kein Rechtsstaat ein soziales Gewissen kein Gewissen soziale Gerechtigkeit keine Gerechtigkeit und ich f rchte auch soziale Demokratie keine Demokratie ist Because of much talk and discussion about the replication crisis with friends and in general I will add these thoughts to all following nonfiction books dealing with humanities in the future so ou might have already seen it Sorry folks this is one of my last rants I am Sick And Tired Of and tired of and want to focus on true science and great fiction instead not this disturbed fairytales for adults who never had the chance to built a free opinion because most of the media they consume to stay informed and get educated avoids any criticism of the current economic systemWithout having read or heard ideas by Chomsky Monbiot Klein Ken Robinson Monbiot Peter Singer William McDonough Ziegler Colin Crouch Jeremy Rifkin David Graeber John Perkins and others humans will always react to people like me condemning the manipulation Hayek was practicing with terrifying success with anger and refusalThese authors don t hide aspects of the truth and describe the real state of the world that should be read the real state of the world that should be read of epic facepalms like this They don t predict the future and preach the one only the true way ignoring anything like black swans coincidences or the for each small child logical fact that nobody knows what will happen and collect exactly the free available data people such as Hayek wanted to ignore foreverSome words about the publication crisis that even have some positive points at the end so that this whole thing is not that depressingOne could call the replication crisis the viral fake news epidemic of many fields of science that was a hidden chronic disease over decades and centuries and has become extremely widespread during the last ears since the first critics began vaccinating against it provoking virulent counterarguments I don t know how else this could end than with nothing else than paradigm shifts discovering many anachronisms and a better fact and number based research with many control instances before something of an impact on the social policy gets accepted A few points that led to it I had an intuitive feeling regarding this for ears but the replication crisis proofed that there are too many interconnections of not strictly scientific fields such as economics and politics with many humanities Look already some of the titles are biased towards a positive or negative attitude but thinking too optimistic is the same mistake as being too pessimistic it isn t objective any and one can be instrumentalized without even recognizing it In natural sciences theoretical physicists astrophysicists physicians that were friends of a certain idea will always say that there is the option of change that a discovery may lead to a new revolution and that their old work has to be reexamined So in science regarding the real world the specialists are much open to change than in some humanities isn t that strange It would be as if one would say that all humans are representative similar that there are no differences But it s not each time a study is made there are different people opinions so many coincidences and uniue happenings that it s impossible to reproduce it Scandinavia vs the normal world The society people live in makes happiness not theoretical not definitive concepts One can manipulate so many parameters in those studies that the result can be extremely positive or negative just depending on what who funds the study and does the study wants as results One could use the studies she he needs to create an optimistic or a pessimistic book and many studies about human nature are redundant repetitive or biased towards a certain result often an optimistic outcome or spectacular groundbreaking results Do ou know who does that too Statistics economics politics and faith I wish I could be a bit optimistic than realistic but not hard evidence based stuff is a bit of a no go if it involves practical applications especially if there is the danger of not working against big problems by doing as if they weren t there A few points that lead away from it 1 Tech2 Nordic model3 Open data open government 4 Blockchains cryptocurrencies uantum computing to make each financial transaction transparent and traceable5 Points mentioned in the Wiki article6 It must be horrible for the poor scientists who work in those fields and are now suffering because the founding fathers used theories and concepts that have nothing to do with real science They worked hard to build a career to just find out that the predecessors integrated methods that couldn t work in other systems let s say an evolving computer program or a machine or a human body or anywhere except in ones imagination They are truly courageous to risk criticism because of the humanities bashing wave that won t end soon As in so many fields it are a few black sheep who ruin everything for many others and the progressive a oung scientist is the he is in danger of getting smashed between a hyper sensible public awareness and the old anachronism shepherds avoiding anything progressive with the danger of a paradigm shift or even a relativization of the field they dedicated their career to There has to be strict segregation between theories and ideas and applications in real life so that anything can be researched but not used to do crazy thingsThe worst bad science practice includes from Wikipedia taken from the article about the replication crisis The replication crisis or replicability crisis or reproducibility crisis is as of 2020 an ongoing methodological crisis in which it has been found that many scientific studies are difficult or impossible to replicate or reproduce The replication crisis affects the social sciences and medicine most severely2 The inability to replicate the studies of others has potentially grave conseuences For Many Fields Of many fields of in which significant theories are grounded on unreproducible experimental work The replication crisis has been particularly widely discussed in the field of psychology and in medicine where a number of efforts have been made to re investigate classic results3 A 2016 poll of 1500 scientists reported that 70% of them had failed to reproduce at least one other scientist s experiment 50% had failed to reproduce one of their own experiments8 In 2009 2% of scientists admitted to falsifying studies at least once and 14% admitted to personally knowing someone who did4 Psychological research is on average afflicted with low statistical power5 Firstly uestionable research practices RPs have been identified as common in the field18 Such practices while not intentionally fraudulent involve capitalizing on the gray area of acceptable scientific practices or exploiting flexibility in data collection analysis and reporting often in an effort to obtain a desired outcome Examples of RPs include selective reporting or partial publication of data reporting only some of the study conditions or collected dependent measures in a publication optional stopping choosing when to stop data collection often based on statistical significance of tests p value rounding rounding p values down to 005 to suggest statistical significance file drawer effect nonpublication of data post hoc storytelling framing exploratory analyses as confirmatory analyses and manipulation of outliers either removing outliers or leaving outliers in a dataset to cause a statistical test to be significant18192021 A survey of over 2000 psychologists indicated that a majority of respondents admitted to using at least one RP18 False positive conclusions often resulting from the pressure to publish or the author s own confirmation bias are an inherent hazard in the field reuiring a certain degree of skepticism on the part of readers26 Secondly psychology and social psychology in particular has found itself at the center of several scandals involving outright fraudulent research7 Thirdly several effects in psychological science have been found to be difficult to replicate even before the current replication crisis Replications appear particularly difficult when research trials are pre registered and conducted by research groups not highly invested in the theory under uestioning8 Scrutiny of many effects have shown that several core beliefs are hard to replicate A recent special edition of the journal Social Psychology focused on replication studies and a number of previously held beliefs were found to be difficult to replicate25 A 2012 special edition of the journal Perspectives on Psychological Science also focused on issues ranging from publication bias to null aversion that contribute to the replication crises in psychology26 In 2015 the first open empirical study of reproducibility in psychology was published called the Reproducibility Project Researchers from around the world collaborated to replicate 100 empirical studies from three top psychology journals Fewer than half of the attempted replications were successful at producing statistically significant results in the expected directions though most of the attempted replications did produce trends in the expected directions9 Many research trials and meta analyses are compromised by poor uality and conflicts of interest that involve both authors and professional advocacy organizations resulting in many false positives regarding the effectiveness of certain types of psychotherapy10 The reproducibility of 100 studies in psychological science from three high ranking psychology journals44 Overall 36% of the replications ielded significant findings p value below 005 compared to 97% of the original studies that had significant effects The mean effect size in the replications was approximately half the magnitude of the effects reported in the original studies11 Highlighting the social structure that discourages replication in psychology Brian D Earp and Jim A C Everett enumerated five points as to why replication attempts are uncommon505112 Independent direct replications of others findings can be time consuming for the replicating researcher13 Replications are likely to take energy and resources directly away from other projects that reflect one s own original thinking14 Replications are generally harder to publish in large part because they are viewed as being unoriginal15 Even if replications are published they are likely to be seen as bricklaying exercises rather than as major contributions to the fieldContinued in comments This book captures the frustration of classical liberals as opposed to modern liberals when they see collectivist policies enacted despite the overwhelming evidence that socialism brings about disastrous resultsHaving grown up and lived in Austria during World War I and later. 1899 1992 recipient of the Medal of Freedom in 1991 and co winner of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics in 1974 was a pioneer in monetary theory and the principal proponent of libertarianism in the twentieth centuryOn the first American edition of The Road to SerfdomOne of the most important books of our generation It restates for our time the issue between liberty and authority with the power and rigor of reasoning with which John Stuart Mill stated the issue for his own generation in his great essay On Liberty It is an arresting call to all well intentioned planners and socialists to all those who are sincere democrats and liberals at heart to stop look and listen Henry Hazlitt New York Times Book Review September 1944In the negative part of Professor Hayek's thesis there is a great deal of truth It cannot be said too often at any rate it is not being said nearly often enough that collectivism is not inherently democratic but on the contrary gives to a tyrannical minority such powers as the Spanish Inuisitors never dreamt of George Orwell Collected Essa.